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    The process of a material being pushed, drawn or forced through a hole.

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    Extrusion is a manufacturing process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections and to work materials that are brittle because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish.

    Key considerations of extrusion

    Here are some key points about extrusion:

    Materials Used

    A variety of materials can be used, including metals, plastics, ceramics, concrete, and foodstuffs.

    Hot Extrusion

    Used for metals and polymers, this process involves heating the material to reduce its viscosity.

    Cold Extrusion

    Typically used for metals like steel, aluminum, copper, and brass, this process is done at room temperature or near room temperature to improve strength and surface finish.

    Warm Extrusion

    This is a variation where the extrusion is performed at temperatures between cold and hot extrusion. It’s often used for non-ferrous materials.

    Process Details

    The material is first placed in a heated chamber and then forced through a die by a ram or screw mechanism.


    The process is used in a wide range of applications. For example, it’s used in the production of aluminium frames for windows, doors, and curtain walls; plastic pipes and tubing; threaded rods; and in the food industry for making pasta and snack foods.

    Die Design

    The design of the die is crucial and can be complex depending on the material being extruded and the desired shape of the final product.

    Post-Extrusion Processing

    Materials may undergo additional processes like cutting, bending, or heat treatment to achieve the desired final properties and dimensions.

    Advantages and limitations


    • Ability to create complex cross-sections.
    • High production rates and efficiency.
    • Excellent surface finish and dimensional accuracy.
    • Improved mechanical properties in cold extrusion due to strain hardening.


    • The process is limited to parts with constant cross-section along their length.
    • Some materials may not extrude well due to their properties.

    A versatile and efficient manufacturing process

    Extrusion is a versatile and efficient manufacturing process used in various industries, from construction and automotive to food processing. Its ability to produce a wide array of shapes and forms from different materials makes it a fundamental process in modern manufacturing.

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