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    Solid Dosage

    Refers to drugs that are intended for ingestion. Types of solid dosage drugs include tablets, capsules, granules, and powders.

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    Solid dosage forms are pharmaceutical preparations that are administered orally and are typically in a solid or semi-solid form. These dosage forms are designed to deliver a precise amount of a medication or therapeutic agent to a patient. Solid dosage forms are among the most commonly used and widely accepted forms of drug administration due to their ease of use, stability, and accuracy in dosing.

    Types of solid dosage

    Here are some common types of solid dosage forms:

    Tablets

    Tablets are solid, flat, and typically round or oval-shaped drug preparations. They are made by compressing a mixture of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants. Tablets may be scored to facilitate splitting for dose adjustment.

    Capsules

    Capsules consist of a gelatin or cellulose shell containing the active ingredient in powder, granule, or pellet form. They are available in two main types: hard gelatin capsules (HGCs) and soft gelatin capsules (SGCs). HGCs are typically used for dry or solid contents, while SGCs are used for liquid or semisolid contents.

    Caplets

    Caplets are similar to tablets but have an elongated shape, making them easier to swallow for some individuals. They are made using the same principles as tablets, with a compressed mixture of API and excipients.

    Lozenges and Troches

    These are solid, flavoured dosage forms that are designed to dissolve slowly in the mouth, delivering medication locally to the throat or mouth. They are often used for local anaesthetic or antiseptic purposes.

    Powders

    Powders are finely divided solid particles that can be administered orally by mixing with water or other liquids before ingestion. They are less common than tablets and capsules but may be used for certain medications or when dose flexibility is required.

    Granules

    Granules consist of small, solid particles containing the API and excipients. They are typically used for paediatrics or geriatric patients who may have difficulty swallowing tablets or capsules. Granules can be sprinkled on food or dissolved in liquid.

    Effervescent Tablets

    These tablets contain citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, which, when dissolved in water, release carbon dioxide gas, causing effervescence. They are often used for antacids and vitamin supplements.

    Chewable Tablets

    Chewable tablets are designed to be chewed before swallowing, making them more palatable for patients who have difficulty swallowing solid dosage forms.

    Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODTs)

    ODTs are designed to rapidly disintegrate in the mouth without the need for water. They are convenient for patients who have difficulty swallowing or those who need a fast-acting medication.

    Modified-Release Dosage Forms

    These are solid dosage forms designed to release the medication slowly and consistently over an extended period. Examples include extended-release tablets or capsules.

    Why use solid dosage forms?

    Solid dosage forms offer several advantages, including accurate dosing, ease of administration, and stability. They are suitable for a wide range of medications, including over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, prescription medications, and dietary supplements. The choice of the appropriate solid dosage form depends on factors such as patient preferences, the drug’s properties, and the intended therapeutic effect.

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